Most Useful Linux Commands for Beginners – Linux Terminal Tutorial

Linux uses the command line interface (CLI) for commands that can perform various tasks. Because the Linux command line uses text it can perform actions very quickly which is why even in the 1970s Computers using the Linux command line would operate quickly and efficiently. It may seem challenging for a beginner which is why it is important to start with the most basic commands and progress from there. The Linux terminal can do many things like downloading a program from the internet or changing the name of a file. A Linux terminal can do a lot of what a regular desktop Linux OS can do but it can also quickly perform other various tasks which is a big reason as to why the command line is still widely used today. When using the command line it is important to know that you must be very careful because it is possible to make a mistake and impact your system.

Linux Ubuntu command line

You can access the terminal by going into the system tools folder. It is usually easy to find. The picture above is what a Linux command line will usually look like. The colors may be different but more less they are all similar. In the example above, John is the name of the user and doe is the name of the system. The ~ followed by the $ represents the home directory. These Linux commands are the most useful for beginners as well as experienced users. You can use these commands in your terminal for practice. All of these commands are safe to use but to get a better idea it is recommended to look up YouTube videos of Linux commands to see them live in action as well as other written tutorials. It will take a little while to get used to but tutorials like this will help you put it all together.



The sudo command stands for super user do. It is almost always installed on most Linux distros but if not you can use sudo apt-get install sudo or yum install sudo if using CentOS or Fedora. It is often used when installing or running a program which will then ask for the password of the root user. Using sudo is generally more secure then logged in as root.

sudo -s 

This allows the user to log in as root. It is not recommended to log in as root unless you know what you are doing since it can be risky.


apt-get stands for Advanced Packaging Tool and as the name implies it is used when installing and removing packages as well as clearing the system of cached data. Instead of using sudo apt-get to work with packages you can shorten it to sudo apt which most Linux distros will support. With these apt-get commands type the package name after the last word of the command. For example, sudo apt-get install packagename. The package name has be typed correctly in order to work. You can go to the package manager and look for the exact package name. For example the name of the Google Chrome browser package is chrome-browser-stable so each package name may be different.

sudo apt-get install

Installs a package

sudo apt-get remove

Removes a package.

sudo apt-get purge

Removes a package with configuration

sudo apt-cache search

Searches for a program

sudo apt-cache show

Shows package details

sudo apt-get update

Refreshes repository index but does not install or remove packages. This is a good command to use before using the sudo apt-get upgrade command.

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Upgrades packages and also ones with auto-handling of dependencies. The full-upgrade command also does the same thing. This command updates the system but could possibly remove packages in order to do that. It usually doesn’t but just in case it is possible to avoid this command completely.

sudo apt-get upgrade

Upgrades all up-gradable packages.

sudo apt-get autoremove

Removes all unwanted packages.

sudo apt-get clean

Clears out the local repository of received package files.

sudo apt-get autoclean

Similar to clean, autoclean Clears the local repository of retrieved package files but only removes files that can no longer be downloaded and are virtually useless.


The ls command stands for list directory contents which lists the sub directories and files of the current directory. You can ls commands to list contents of any directory that you switch to.

ls -l

ls -l is similar to ls but instead lists the contents in long listing fashion which basically means that more info is provided like dates, size, and other info.

ls -a

The ls -a command lists all files including hidden ones. A file can be hidden by putting a . before the file name.

ls -la

The ls -la command lists all the sub directories and files as well as hidden files of the current directory. A lot of users will use this command since it lists the most content inside of a directory.


The cd command (change directory) changes the current directory that the user is inside of. If you want to change a directory within your current directory type cd nameofdirectory such as pictures, downloads, music, or other directories. If the directory is located outside of the current directory you need to use a / to indicate the path. For example, cd /directory/directory To go back a directly use cd. with a single dot or cd.. (double dots). If the name of a folder or file within your directory has a space between it use a backwards slash like so, cd class\notes otherwise it will display an error because the space makes the command pick it up as two separate files resulting in an error. Also remember that Linux is case sensitive so the directory or file must be exact.

cd ~

This command allows you to go back to the home directory.


The touch command creates a new file within a directory.


pwd stands for Print Working Directory which as the name implies, prints the path of the current working directory starting from the root.


The mv command stands for move which is different from copy since it moved the file or directory to another location unlike copy which leaves the source file or directory where it was originally located.


The cp command stands for copy which copies a file or directory to another location. In order to copy files and directories you must have permissions for the read source and write destination otherwise you will be denied permission.


The mkdir (make directory) command creates a new directory.


rm stands for remove which removes a directory or file. It should be used with caution. It may seem obvious to not delete an important file on purpose but is stated as a reminder just in case one starts using the rm command as practice. rmdir can also be used but can only remove a directory without files which makes rm usually more useful. If you want to use delete just the directory and not the files then use rm -r


The locate command as the name implies locates a file.


The cat command creates a file with content. This similar to the touch command but the difference is that the touch command creates an empty file.


The clear command clears the terminal for a new start like it was just opened. This is useful if you simply want a new start which is easier than closing and reopening the terminal.


The who command allows you to see the users that are logged into the system. The whoami command is also a command that can be used but only displays the currently logged in user. For Just 1 personal computer this is almost always the same result but for a system of computers it can be different.


df stands for Disk free which is similar to du.


The du command stands for Disk Usage is used to estimate hard drive space. du is used more often than df.


hostname is a command which shows the users host name and domain name (DNS)

uname -a 

uname is the regular command but the reason why I only listed uname -a is because with the -a parameter it will show all the system information instead of only parts of information.


The killall command kills all running processes. This should not be used unless needed since data from a program can be lost. For example if a Web browser is misbehaving and is freezing the killall command can be used. You can also go to task manager, find the process, right click on it, then choose kill process.


The lsblk command displays all block devices such as USB drives, hard drives or CD rom drives.

lsblk -l

The same as the lsblk command but instead lists it in long listing fashion which displays more information.


Displays a manual for any command used on Linux. For example type man ls, man sudo, man apt-get, or others to get a text manual description within the terminal on how the command works. Use the arrow keys to navigate the man page, enter to move one line at a time, space bar to go to the next page, and b to go back to the previous page. To quit the man page press the q key.


help is similar to the command man but displays different information on how to use the command. Type the name of the command before help


ping stands for Internet Packet Groper which is used to check the network connection between a server and a host. For example type or paste a URL after the word ping and you will get a response from the server which including a lower or high ping time indicating if the website is online and how fast the response time is. Use ctrl+c to stop sending packets or x out of the terminal. Using ctrl+c is in theory the safer method.


So one thing to remember is to not be overwhelmed thinking that you have to remember every command. A lot of experienced Linux users don’t use every single command and again, most of the commands are performing tasks that can usually be performed within the graphical desktop OS. As stated in the beginning it is a good idea to look up other info and YouTube videos to see these commands in action like. For example Ifconfig and a lot of other advanced networking commands were not listed due to the fact that they can be confusing for a beginner so seeing them used in action can make them a lot easier to understand. The important part is to not feel overwhelmed which will makes things easier.


PS5 VS Xbox Series X – Which System is Going to be More Worth it?


The PS5 is coming closer and closer at becoming the next generation console. With the PS4 being around for about seven years since it’s release date in 2013, it’s time for the next generation console to take it’s place. Here is a breakdown of what the PS5 has to offer as far as price, specs, release date, and other information. It is important to note that the PS5 will apparently have unique elements which have not yet been announced.


PS5 Logo



It is confirmed that the PS5 will use a modified third-generation eight-core Ryzen 3 CPU as well as advanced Navi-based graphics that will allow ray-tracing which is a sophisticated lighting system used in PC gaming systems that improves gaming visuals as well as audio. Sony is also adding custom hardware for 3D audio resulting in a drastic change since the audio from PS3 from PS4 did not change much. The PS5 will contain a SSD which already proved to result in faster load times when playing Spiderman on the PS5. The load time from transitioning to a different environment went from 15 seconds to .8 seconds which is obviously very impressive. It’s safe to say that it should at the very least reduce startup and load times, with online load times expected to be faster as well.



The PS5 will be have the capacity to output in 4k and 8k. This jump is barely noticeable to the human eye making the jump to 8k resolution less of a big deal this time around.



The Dualshock5 is going to look similar to the Dualshock4 but will include significant changes. The Dualshock5 will not feature the lightbar the PS4 controller had and will also have different sized triggers. The PS5 controller will feature USB micro-c charging which is a step up from The micro-b the PS4 had. It will also have a built in microphone at the base. A major feature which is being focused on is Haptic feedback which makes in game experiences feel different from one another simulating various actions. For example crashing a car will feel different from driving a car in mud or rain. The Dualshock5 will also feature a larger touch pad.


Disk Drive

Like the PS4 the PS5 will come with a disk drive which will play games and media such as 4k and Blu-ray disks.


Backwards compatibility 

The PS5 has been confirmed that it will be able to play PS4 game disks unlike the PS4 as well as the PS3 which both lacked backwards compatibility for prior console game disks. This means that even though the PS5 will be able to play PS4 games it will not play PS1, PS2, or PS3 games which is to be somewhat expected. In this scenario it is assumed most people are grateful that the PS5 has PS4 compatibility. It is interesting to note that only the original model of the PS3 allowed backwards compatibility for PS2 and PS1 game disks.



A few game titles have been confirmed for the PS5. Godfall is a game that is being created by the borderlands studio Gearbox along with the help of Counterplay Games which is the studio that worked on God of War. The game is apparently going to be solo along with co-op options. Another title is Black Ops 5 which is expected to be a cross-gen game for the PS4 and PS5. A few more to take note of are Horizon Zero Dawn 2 and God of War 2. God of war 2 is going to be a hit given that the first one was so successful



The official price of the PS5 remains unknown but it is expected to be somewhere between $400 and $500. Being that the PS3 list price was $599 it is possible that we might see the same with the PS5 or even something more outrageous like $650. Since the PS5 is supposed to rival gaming PCs the price point at launch could be well over $500 or even $600 likely making it more expensive than Microsoft’s next generation Xbox console.


Release date

The PS5 is confirmed to be released between October and December in 2020 during the holiday season. It has been rumored that the release date may be November 20th but this is just a leak and has not yet been confirmed. Ether way it will most likely be released before December giving people enough time to get a hold of one before Christmas.


That pretty much sums up what is known about the PS5. With the release of the PS5 It seems like the PS4 would go strong at least for a while since it does have a decent library of games as well as multiple remasters.


Xbox Series X Logo

With the PS5 on it’s way Microsoft is set to release it’s next generation console sometime around the holidays in 2020. The name of the next generation console is Xbox Series X. The look of the Xbox Series X is similar to that of a compact computer tower. The system will have extensive cooling features as well as having minimal noise based on the hardware and system design. Here is a breakdown of the specs, price, release date, and more.


The Xbox Series X will use AMD’s Zen 2 CPU which is confirmed to be four times more powerful than the CPU of the Xbox One. The Xbox Series X will also use a AMD Navi-based GPU which is confirmed to be twice as powerful as the GPU of the Xbox One. Like the PS5 the Xbox Series X will use ray tracing which is a sophisticated lighting system. Xbox Series X will also use a SSD drive which is comparable to what gaming PCs use. There are no specific numbers yet and these are just leaks. With that said it is still safe to assume the hardware will be significantly more powerful than previous generation consoles.


The Xbox Series X will be able to output 4k as well as having the capacity to output 8K. The difference between 4k and 8k is barely noticeable by the human eye. However it still has many people excited.


The controller for the Xbox Series X will look similar to the Xbox One with some changes. One feature is an updated D pad as well as a share button placed in the middle of the controller. The controller will be able to be used with the Xbox One as well as a Windows 10 PC.

Disk Drive

Both the Xbox Series X and the PS5 will continue to use disk drives to play games as well as other media including 4k movie disks as well as Blu-ray disks. It is important to note that if Microsoft does a release a budget friendly next generation console then it is likely that the console will be disk free.

Backwards Compatibility

Just like the PS5 the Xbox Series X will allow backwards compatibility with previous generation consoles, in this case being the Xbox One. However, the Xbox Series X outdid themselves by allowing full backwards compatibility with every generation of Xbox games as long as the game supports backwards compatibility. This is something that the PS5 will not allow which could be a main selling point for the Xbox Series X.


The Xbox Series X will not have as many launch games as the PS4 which is not surprising since the PS4 has always had more exclusive titles than the Xbox One. One of the games in development for the Xbox Series X is Halo Infinite which will likely be the most popular game.


The launch price of the Xbox Series X is expected to be around $400-$450. It is not confirmed but if Microsoft does release a budget disk free console (Lockhart) then it is expected for the console to be priced at around $300-$350.

Release Date

Unlike the PS5 The Xbox Series X is not as specific with it’s release date. The only time frame that is confirmed is around The holidays in 2020 which means it will almost definitely come out around the same time as the PS5.
This is all the information that is known about the Xbox Series X so far. So far the new generation consoles seem like a big upgrade from prior generation consoles.

Is Incense Smoke Bad for Your Health? Incense Smoke Health Risks

Burning incense can seem safe but did you know incense smoke can actually have negative effects on your heath that are similar to second hand smoke? Inhalation of incense smoke can over time cause health problems which can be potentially serious. Studies have shown that long term exposure to incense smoke in your home can put you at an increased risk of heart disease and cardiovascular related deaths. Also a lot of incense are treated with chemicals and other harmful ingredients.


Different types of incense can have different effects since not all incense is made the same. If you do decide to burn or keep burning incense always make sure you have proper ventilation like having the incense close to a window.  Never burn too much incense in a smaller room. Certain guidelines can help minimize the risk but all in all it is still probably not a good idea to keep burning incense over a long period of time.