Computer Networking Guide For Beginners – Networking Basics and Fundamentals

Networking is how information between two or more connections is exchanged. For example the The WiFi internet that you use at home is a local area network (LAN) which allows information to be sent over the internet. This networking guide is for beginners which covers networking basics and fundamentals.

Computer networking


A client is a device that requests information from a server such as a web server. A client can be a host but is not a server, it is only a device such as a computer.


A server such as a web server sends information to a client that requests it. A server is not a client.


A host is any device or node on a network such as a server or a device.

Local Area Network (LAN)

As stated above, a LAN is a local area network such as the WiFi connection in your home or the WiFi connection at a coffee shop. This kind of network is limited to only a certain area.

Wide Area Network (WAN)

A wide area network covers a lot more distance. For example the internet itself is a WAN which is world wide. A mobile phone service network is also a WAN.


A hub is like an older outdated version of the switch. When data was sent from a computer it would be sent to all other computers on the network instead of sending it to one specific computer. Hubs are for the most part not used anymore.


A switch is a device that is often built into a router that allows the router to send data to specific devices. The switch is similar to a hub but is a lot smarter in how it sends data to devices.


A router is considered the gateway to the internet which allows your devices to connect through WiFi or Ethernet ports. This is the device that will be in a lot of peoples homes who have internet.

Wireless Access Point (WAP)

A wireless access point is a device that is often integrated into a router which allows WiFi devices to connect to the network. You can consider it the technical name for WiFi. It can also be a separate device which can be referred to as a WiFi extender.

IP Address

A computer uses an IP address so that information on the internet knows where to be sent. IP addresses are similar to house addresses but usually not as specific and only give a general location.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol assigns IP addresses to devices that allow them to to connect to the internet. Most IP addresses will remain the same for a while but it depends on the Internet Service Provider (ISP).

Media Access Control Address (MAC Address)

A MAC address is the physical address of a device which is used to send data from the internet to the specific device unlike the IP address which is used to transfer data from one connection to another. Another difference is that a MAC address is assigned at the time the device was manufactured unlike an IP address which is a dynamic address assigned when you connect to the internet.


A firewall is a layer between a device and the internet which filters incoming and outgoing traffic. Firewalls are a big part of online security and can also be adjusted to only allow certain data to be received.


Ports are part of a firewall which allow different types of data to be received or rejected. 0 to 1,023 are the most commonly used ports even though there is a total of 65,535 for both TCP and UDP. TCP and UDP are basically two different types of connections that are used depending on what kind of data is being sent.


Ethernet is the wiring that is used between devices such as routers, switches, and modems on a local area network (LAN). A cable that connects a device to the internet using a switch usually installed within a router is an Ethernet cable.


All of this is important to know if you want to advance within networking. More posts will be coming soon. Also check out how to protect yourself online and the different types of malware and what they are used for










Are Video Games Bad for Your Health? Video Game Side Effects

Are video games bad for your health? Video games are very popular and always have been but there could be negative side effects when gaming. Some people don’t play much video games and others spend countless hours playing GTA or Call of Duty online. Here are the things to consider while playing video games.


Violent behavior

Some studies claim that people who play violent video games can be more aggressive and accepting of violence. This should be taken lightly because it all depends on the persons age, history of any medical problems, and the type of scenarios in the video game they are playing. So yes video games can possibly make somebody more aggresive but underlying problems are likely the main cause and are otherwise fine for a healthy normal person. With that said most rated mature games are still inappropriate for young viewers.


Your eyes are very important so its no surprise that incorrect lighting and other factors can put strain on your eyes. When playing video games always use proper lighting to reduce glare. It is a good idea to take short breaks every so often also. The national institute of health actually proved that proved that action video games can enhance visual processing which lets gamers see things easier and clear. Video game therapy is also used to treat lazy eye.

Correct posture

If you often play video games it is important to use correct posture while sitting. Incorrect posture can lead to shoulder stiffness. It helps to have a comfortable chair or couch. Taking short breaks to avoid playing for long hours is a good idea.

Lack of activity and exercise

Some people can argue that video games are unproductive. This is true to an extent because long hours of playing every day can get in the way of other tasks and other activities. Video games can also make you loose track of time and interfere with your sleeping schedule which can be an issue for people who have to wake up early. If you already spend your free time staying up late watching tv and other leisurely activities then video games should be fine for you. However if you feel like video games are taking up valuable time then you may want to play less then you’re currently playing.

Triggering seizures

People with epilepsy should avoid playing video games or even viewing them. Unless cleared by a doctor, witch is unlikely, video games can trigger seizures in people with epilepsy. Most video games will have a warning displayed on the introduction screens when you first start playing.

With all this said, video games are safe as long as you use good judgement and take precaution.

Is MMA Safer than Boxing? MMA VS Boxing Rules and Differences

MMA has become increasing popular over the last few years. MMA may seem dangerous at first glance but did you know that MMA is safer than boxing? Boxing has a lot more serious and fatal injuries reported compared to MMA. There are rules in MMA that keep the fighter safer.


Different sized gloves

The size of the boxing glove makes a difference. Since the glove is bigger and has a lot of padding more impact is absorbed to the head of the opponent. In MMA the glove is a lot thinner making a lot more direct contact with the persons fist. This doesn’t disperse as much impact to the head which makes the MMA glove safer.

Standing eight count

In boxing there is a standing eight count. This rule gives fighters eight seconds to get back up after they’ve been knocked down by a punch. The problem with this is that a boxer can suffer a concussion and then get back up a few seconds later to fight. Getting knocked out after already having a concussion can be very dangerous.

Of course somebody can suffer a concussion while fighting in MMA and continue. However in MMA when the fighter is knocked out or unable to defend themselves the fight is usually stopped. This makes the rules in MMA safer.

Shorter rounds

In MMA the rounds are shorter. Pro MMA has three five-minute rounds or five five-minute rounds for championship fights. In pro boxing the rounds can be anywhere from four to twelve depending on experience. Twelve is for championship fights.

Striking, grappling, and submissions

In MMA kicks and knees are allowed. This means more areas can be targeted such as the midsection and legs resulting in less strikes to the head as opposed to boxing which is just punches.

Fights have been won in MMA before by not throwing any strikes. The grappling aspect of MMA allows a fighter to take the fight to the floor. Once on the floor a fighter can win by TKO or submission. This also makes MMA safer than boxing.


At the end of the day MMA seems to be significantly safer than boxing for a few reasons. From the outside MMA may seem more dangerous but when it comes to serious injury Boxing is the combat sport that is more dangerous.